Verso Dark Spot Fix Review - The Dermatology Review

Verso Dark Spot Fix Review

SKIN CARE REVIEWS

12.05.18 AD DISCLOSURE

What is Verso Dark Spot Fix?

Verso Dark Spot Fix is a dark spot corrector that is said to diminish the appearance of minor dark patches on the skin caused by age, sun damage, and post acne. With regular use, Verso Dark Spot Fix can help to fade unwanted dark spots to make the skin’s natural tone even and smooth. Unlike most dark spot correctors that contain hydroquinone, Verso Dark Spot Fix features the brand’s Retinol 8 complex to rejuvenate the appearance of skin. We’ll discuss exactly how the Retinol 8 complex works below, as well as other key ingredients in Verso Dark Spot Fix. 

What are the Best Skin Care Products of 2020?

What are the key ingredients in Verso Dark Spot Fix?

The key ingredients in Verso Dark Spot Fix include ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, niacinamide, Retinol 8, and turmeric root extract. If you’re not familiar with these ingredients, read on to learn exactly how they will affect your skin. 

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, also known as octinoxate, is the highest concentration ingredient in Verso Dark Spot Fix (after water). It is the oldest and most commonly used UVB-absorbing active ingredient in sunscreen. UV absorbers like ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate are also known as chemical sunscreen ingredients, which work by absorbing UV light and then transforming that light energy into some other form of energy, such as heat. Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate is included in Verso Dark Spot Fix to prevent dark spots from getting worse due to sun exposure. 

It’s important to note that while ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate does provide some UVA protection, it does not protect against the entire range of UVA wavelengths. This means that you must wear a broad spectrum sunscreen on top of Verso Dark Spot Fix if you’re going to be in the sun for a prolonged period of time. 

The next key ingredient in Verso Dark Spot Fix is niacinamide, a form of vitamin B3 that provides numerous benefits to the skin. For instance, it is well known as a potent antioxidant. According to the Journal of Clinical Aesthetic Dermatology, niacinamide “increases the antioxidant capacity of skin after topical application by increasing the reduced forms (NADPH), which have potent antioxidant properties.” Antioxidants help the skin combat free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition, studies have shown that niacinamide can repair the skin barrier and improve skin moisture, as well as reduce inflammation, blotchiness, hyperpigmentation, acne, and wrinkling.

Next up is Verso’s proprietary vitamin A complex called Retinol 8 (retinyl retinoate). Retinol 8 is a stabilized Vitamin A complex that is eight times more effective than standard retinol. It can safely be used during the day and causes less irritation than other retinol ingredients. Once Retinol 8 is absorbed into the skin, it is converted to retinoic acid (the active form). Retinoic acid helps to rejuvenate the skin by stimulating new collagen production, increasing the rate of epidermal cellular turnover, and causing dispersion of melanin granules. Ultimately, Retinol 8 can help to fade dark spots, improve uneven skin tone, minimize the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, restore skin firmness, and shrink the appearance of enlarged pores. 

The final key ingredient in Verso Dark Spot Fix is turmeric root extract. The main bioactive component of turmeric root extract is called curcumin, a bright yellow polyphenol. Curcumin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and also has the ability to fade dark spots by inhibiting melanogenesis (the process by which melanin is produced by melanocytes). 

Where is Verso Dark Spot Fix sold?

Verso Dark Spot Fix is sold on the brand’s website, as well as third party ecommerce websites such as Amazon and Dermstore. Verso Dark Spot Fix is also sold at physical locations in Asia, Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Verso has a store locator on their website so you can find a location near you. In the United States, you can find Verso Dark Spot Fix at high-end department stores such as Barneys New York, Bloomingdales, Nordstrom, and Neiman Marcus.

What is the Verso return policy?

The Verso return policy states, “If you were to be unsatisfied with your purchase at Verso Skincare online store you are entitled to withdraw your purchase or exchange your product by sending a notice to Verso Skincare within 14 days of the date on which you have received the product. Return product(s) in unused condition accompanied by the original invoice. Returns will only be accepted if labels and original packaging are fully intact and in a resellable condition. The Verso Skincare online store cannot accept returns where labels have been removed or products opened. Refunds for faulty items can be made within the 30-day period following delivery.”

Is Verso cruelty free?

Verso does not have a statement on their website about animal testing. According to ethicalelephant.com, Verso Skin Care is not cruelty free.

Verso Dark Spot Fix reviews

The brand does not display Verso Dark Spot Fix reviews on their website. Unfortunately, there is only one Verso Dark Spot Fix review on dermstore.com and only four reviews on Amazon at the time of writing this review. The Verso Dark Spot Fix review on dermstore.com gave the product 5 out of 5 stars and says, “This really works. After a few days I noticed my dark spot were almost gone. I truly love this product and I will order it again and again.”

After four customer reviews on Amazon, Verso Dark Spot Fix has received an average of 4.2 out of 5 stars. Positive reviews mention that while this product does help to lighten dark spots, it does not get rid of them completely. Negative Verso Dark Spot Fix reviews are mostly concerning the price of this product ($150 for 0.5 fl oz). 

What are some alternatives to Verso Dark Spot Fix?

Verso Dark Spot Fix definitely contains several excellent ingredients to help lighten dark spots and brighten skin tone, such as niacinamide, Retinol 8, and turmeric root extract. However, you may be hesitant to try Verso Dark Spot Fix due to the hefty price tag. If so, we’d like to recommend a few products for you to consider that may help to reduce the appearance of dark spots. 

One product we recommend for dark spots is Formulyst Luminous Skin Serum. Formulated to promote a brighter, more radiant-looking complexion, Formulyst’s Luminous Skin Serum is a lightweight, highly concentrated formula enriched with Triple Brightening Technology – a naturally powerful combination of alpha arbutin, Rumex extract, and a biomimetic peptide.

Another product specifically designed to target the appearance of dark spots and uneven skin tone caused by hyperpigmentation is Formulyst Dark Spot Solutions. It is formulated with HyWhite – an alpha linolenic acid (ALA) that helps to lighten the appearance of dark spots and visibly improve the uniformity of the skin color. This serum also contains a lightweight molecular hyaluronic acid, which instantly helps to improve skin hydration. 

If you were impressed with all of the retinol benefits we discussed above, then we’d recommend trying Formulyst’s Anti-Aging Night Cream with Retinol. This night cream is formulated to help hydrate, soothe, and transform your skin while you sleep. Rather than using standard retinol, the formula contains innovative Encapsulated Retinol Technology in order to deliver a higher concentration of retinol to your skin for intense rejuvenation. Remember that retinol can provide numerous benefits to the skin, such as helping to minimize the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, fade dark spots, improve uneven skin tone, restore skin firmness, and shrink the appearance of enlarged pores. The Anti-Aging Night Cream with Retinol also helps to lock in moisture and restore the skin’s barrier function with emollients such as safflower oil, squalane, and jojoba oil.

Want to know the best thing about these Formulyst products? Formulyst allows you to bundle three products together for $108/shipment, so you’ll end up with three products for less than the price of just one bottle of Verso Dark Spot Fix!

THE BEST SKIN CARE LINES 2020

1

Formulyst

The philosophy of Formulyst is long-term and effective skincare, rather than covering up any imperfections. The comprehensive line of products tackles everything from wrinkles to dark spots and dry skin. While some brands rely on unnecessary fillers and scents, Formulyst focuses on ingredients that help create results, such as vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Many of the Formulyst’s products harness the power of plant and citrus extracts as well as gold-standard workhorses such as retinol. Read More
2

Advanced Dermatology

The Advanced Dermatology skin care regimen addresses the most pressing aging concerns. It can be used by men and women in their 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s and beyond. This award-winning system can help diminish wrinkle appearance, reduce dark spots and hyperpigmentation, fade away redness, even out skin tone and improve the appearance of eye bags and dark circles. Some of the standout products in this line include the Super Youth Serum, Complete Age Defense and Anti-Wrinkle Firming Night Treatment. Read More

Aqua

FUNCTIONS:

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

FUNCTIONS:

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate

FUNCTIONS:

Sunscreen

Sunscreen contains active ingredients that absorb or reflect the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. Sunscreens can be categorized based on their ingredients into two groups: physical and chemical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, protect your skin by using physical UV filters to block or deflect UV light. Physical sunscreens tend to be better tolerated by most skin types because they are not absorbed into the skin. Chemical sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, octinoxate, and avobenzone, protect the skin by first absorbing UV light, then transforming that light energy into some other form of energy, such as heat. A benefit of chemical sunscreens is their ability to defend the deeper layers of skin, including collagen fibers and other tissue, against the aging effects of UVA rays.  In order for a sunscreen to be labeled as “broad spectrum”, the active ingredients must be able to protect the skin from both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. Lastly, sunscreens will have a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) on their label. SPF is defined by the FDA as “how well a sunscreen protects you from sunburn”. Thus, the number following SPF on a sunscreen label tells you how much UVB light that sunscreen can filter out. For example, SPF 15 can filter 93% of the sun’s UVB rays, whereas SPF 30 can filter 97%.

Octinoxate, also known as octyl methoxycinnamate, is the oldest and most commonly used UVB-absorbing agent in sunscreen. UVB rays are the type that cause sunburn, and UVA rays are the...Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Sunscreen

Sunscreen contains active ingredients that absorb or reflect the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. Sunscreens can be categorized based on their ingredients into two groups: physical and chemical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, protect your skin by using physical UV filters to block or deflect UV light. Physical sunscreens tend to be better tolerated by most skin types because they are not absorbed into the skin. Chemical sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, octinoxate, and avobenzone, protect the skin by first absorbing UV light, then transforming that light energy into some other form of energy, such as heat. A benefit of chemical sunscreens is their ability to defend the deeper layers of skin, including collagen fibers and other tissue, against the aging effects of UVA rays.  In order for a sunscreen to be labeled as “broad spectrum”, the active ingredients must be able to protect the skin from both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. Lastly, sunscreens will have a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) on their label. SPF is defined by the FDA as “how well a sunscreen protects you from sunburn”. Thus, the number following SPF on a sunscreen label tells you how much UVB light that sunscreen can filter out. For example, SPF 15 can filter 93% of the sun’s UVB rays, whereas SPF 30 can filter 97%.

Niacinamide

FUNCTIONS:

Vitamin

Vitamins are organic substances (that just means they include the element carbon) that are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins include all 8 B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and vitamin P (bioflavonoids). The most common vitamins used in skin care products include vitamins A, C, and E, niacinamide (vitamin B3), and panthenol (provitamin B5). The majority of vitamins function as antioxidants. Antioxidants limit oxidative damage caused by free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition to functioning as antioxidants, each vitamin provides unique skin care benefits. For example, vitamin C is well known to help fade dark spots and brighten the complexion, while vitamin E can help to strengthen the skin’s moisture barrier.

Niacinamide is a form of vitamin B3 that forms when the body absorbs more niacin than it actually needs. This chemical can be found in many different kinds of foods...Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Vitamin

Vitamins are organic substances (that just means they include the element carbon) that are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins include all 8 B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and vitamin P (bioflavonoids). The most common vitamins used in skin care products include vitamins A, C, and E, niacinamide (vitamin B3), and panthenol (provitamin B5). The majority of vitamins function as antioxidants. Antioxidants limit oxidative damage caused by free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition to functioning as antioxidants, each vitamin provides unique skin care benefits. For example, vitamin C is well known to help fade dark spots and brighten the complexion, while vitamin E can help to strengthen the skin’s moisture barrier.

C12–15 Alkyl Benzoate

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Canola Oil

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Canola oil is a vegetable oil derived from the rapeseed, a bright yellow flowering plant. Rapeseed is mainly cultivated for its oil-rich seed, and is the third-largest source of vegetable

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate

FUNCTIONS:

Sunscreen

Sunscreen contains active ingredients that absorb or reflect the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. Sunscreens can be categorized based on their ingredients into two groups: physical and chemical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, protect your skin by using physical UV filters to block or deflect UV light. Physical sunscreens tend to be better tolerated by most skin types because they are not absorbed into the skin. Chemical sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, octinoxate, and avobenzone, protect the skin by first absorbing UV light, then transforming that light energy into some other form of energy, such as heat. A benefit of chemical sunscreens is their ability to defend the deeper layers of skin, including collagen fibers and other tissue, against the aging effects of UVA rays.  In order for a sunscreen to be labeled as “broad spectrum”, the active ingredients must be able to protect the skin from both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. Lastly, sunscreens will have a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) on their label. SPF is defined by the FDA as “how well a sunscreen protects you from sunburn”. Thus, the number following SPF on a sunscreen label tells you how much UVB light that sunscreen can filter out. For example, SPF 15 can filter 93% of the sun’s UVB rays, whereas SPF 30 can filter 97%.

FUNCTIONS:

Sunscreen

Sunscreen contains active ingredients that absorb or reflect the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. Sunscreens can be categorized based on their ingredients into two groups: physical and chemical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, protect your skin by using physical UV filters to block or deflect UV light. Physical sunscreens tend to be better tolerated by most skin types because they are not absorbed into the skin. Chemical sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, octinoxate, and avobenzone, protect the skin by first absorbing UV light, then transforming that light energy into some other form of energy, such as heat. A benefit of chemical sunscreens is their ability to defend the deeper layers of skin, including collagen fibers and other tissue, against the aging effects of UVA rays.  In order for a sunscreen to be labeled as “broad spectrum”, the active ingredients must be able to protect the skin from both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. Lastly, sunscreens will have a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) on their label. SPF is defined by the FDA as “how well a sunscreen protects you from sunburn”. Thus, the number following SPF on a sunscreen label tells you how much UVB light that sunscreen can filter out. For example, SPF 15 can filter 93% of the sun’s UVB rays, whereas SPF 30 can filter 97%.

Butylene Glycol

FUNCTIONS:

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Humectant

A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that has a molecular structure with several hydrophilic (water loving) groups, such as hydroxyl groups (OH) and/or amine groups (NH2). There needs to be enough NH and OH groups on the molecule to counteract the nonpolar parts (i.e. hydrocarbon portion), allowing the overall molecule to be polar enough to attract water. The OH and NH groups hydrogen bond with water, essentially “grabbing” it and holding it on the skin. Humectants slow water from evaporating and therefore keep the skin hydrated. Examples of humectants include glycerin, amino acids, peptides, urea, and hyaluronic acid.

When reading skin care product ingredient lists, you may come across a chemical called butylene glycol, and wonder about what it does and how it works. After all, this ingredient...Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Humectant

A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that has a molecular structure with several hydrophilic (water loving) groups, such as hydroxyl groups (OH) and/or amine groups (NH2). There needs to be enough NH and OH groups on the molecule to counteract the nonpolar parts (i.e. hydrocarbon portion), allowing the overall molecule to be polar enough to attract water. The OH and NH groups hydrogen bond with water, essentially “grabbing” it and holding it on the skin. Humectants slow water from evaporating and therefore keep the skin hydrated. Examples of humectants include glycerin, amino acids, peptides, urea, and hyaluronic acid.

Diethylhexyl Carbonate

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Heptyl Undecylenate

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Glycerin

FUNCTIONS:

Humectant

A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that has a molecular structure with several hydrophilic (water loving) groups, such as hydroxyl groups (OH) and/or amine groups (NH2). There needs to be enough NH and OH groups on the molecule to counteract the nonpolar parts (i.e. hydrocarbon portion), allowing the overall molecule to be polar enough to attract water. The OH and NH groups hydrogen bond with water, essentially “grabbing” it and holding it on the skin. Humectants slow water from evaporating and therefore keep the skin hydrated. Examples of humectants include glycerin, amino acids, peptides, urea, and hyaluronic acid.

Glycerin is an ingredient that can be found in many beauty products because of its moisture locking properties. It is a form of sugar alcohol that is available naturally in...Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Humectant

A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that has a molecular structure with several hydrophilic (water loving) groups, such as hydroxyl groups (OH) and/or amine groups (NH2). There needs to be enough NH and OH groups on the molecule to counteract the nonpolar parts (i.e. hydrocarbon portion), allowing the overall molecule to be polar enough to attract water. The OH and NH groups hydrogen bond with water, essentially “grabbing” it and holding it on the skin. Humectants slow water from evaporating and therefore keep the skin hydrated. Examples of humectants include glycerin, amino acids, peptides, urea, and hyaluronic acid.

Glyceryl Stearate

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Emulsifier

An emulsifier is an ingredient that is added to a formulation for the purpose of keeping ingredients from separating in an emulsion. By definition, an emulsion is a dispersion of two or more immiscible (normally incapable of being mixed) ingredients. For example, a formulation that contains both water and oil components is an emulsion and would require an emulsifier. This is because when water and oil are mixed together and shaken, a dispersion of oil droplets in water - and vice versa - is formed. However, these two phases can separate if the product is left to settle. To address this problem, an emulsifier can be added to the system to help the droplets remain dispersed. improve the consistency of a product, which enables an even distribution of topical skin care benefits.

Surfactant

Surfactant is the short term for surface active agent. Surfactantsare ingredients that lower the surface tension between two substances, such as two liquids or a liquid and a solid. A surfactant molecule contains one end that is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and one end that is lipophilic (attracted to oil). This allows surfactants to attract and suspends oils, dirt, and other impurities that have accumulated on the skin and wash them away. Due to these properties, surfactants are used in products such as cleansers, body washes, and shampoos. Surfactants can be classified by the charge characteristics of their polar (hydrophilic) head groups. The four classifications are anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. Anionic surfactants, such as carboxylic acids and sulfates, have a negative charge on their polar head groups and are most useful for applications that require good cleansing and foam. Cationic surfactants, such as amines and quaternized ammonium compounds (quats), have a positive charge on their polar head and provide conditioning effects. Amphoteric surfactants have the potential to either have a positive or negative charge, depending on the pH of the finished product. Amphoteric surfactants, such as coco betaine and cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, are primarily used as secondary surfactants in cosmetics and personal care products. Lastly, non-ionic surfactants have no specific charge in their hydrophilic head, and are primarily used as emulsifiers, conditioning ingredients, and solubilizing agents. Nonionic surfactants have no foaming capabilities and provide very gentle cleansing properties to the formulation.=

Glyceryl stearate is a naturally derived fatty acid that is used as a thickener, lubricating agent, and emollient in various cosmetics and personal care products....Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Emulsifier

An emulsifier is an ingredient that is added to a formulation for the purpose of keeping ingredients from separating in an emulsion. By definition, an emulsion is a dispersion of two or more immiscible (normally incapable of being mixed) ingredients. For example, a formulation that contains both water and oil components is an emulsion and would require an emulsifier. This is because when water and oil are mixed together and shaken, a dispersion of oil droplets in water - and vice versa - is formed. However, these two phases can separate if the product is left to settle. To address this problem, an emulsifier can be added to the system to help the droplets remain dispersed. improve the consistency of a product, which enables an even distribution of topical skin care benefits.

Surfactant

Surfactant is the short term for surface active agent. Surfactantsare ingredients that lower the surface tension between two substances, such as two liquids or a liquid and a solid. A surfactant molecule contains one end that is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and one end that is lipophilic (attracted to oil). This allows surfactants to attract and suspends oils, dirt, and other impurities that have accumulated on the skin and wash them away. Due to these properties, surfactants are used in products such as cleansers, body washes, and shampoos. Surfactants can be classified by the charge characteristics of their polar (hydrophilic) head groups. The four classifications are anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. Anionic surfactants, such as carboxylic acids and sulfates, have a negative charge on their polar head groups and are most useful for applications that require good cleansing and foam. Cationic surfactants, such as amines and quaternized ammonium compounds (quats), have a positive charge on their polar head and provide conditioning effects. Amphoteric surfactants have the potential to either have a positive or negative charge, depending on the pH of the finished product. Amphoteric surfactants, such as coco betaine and cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, are primarily used as secondary surfactants in cosmetics and personal care products. Lastly, non-ionic surfactants have no specific charge in their hydrophilic head, and are primarily used as emulsifiers, conditioning ingredients, and solubilizing agents. Nonionic surfactants have no foaming capabilities and provide very gentle cleansing properties to the formulation.=

Peg-100 Stearate

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Emulsifier

An emulsifier is an ingredient that is added to a formulation for the purpose of keeping ingredients from separating in an emulsion. By definition, an emulsion is a dispersion of two or more immiscible (normally incapable of being mixed) ingredients. For example, a formulation that contains both water and oil components is an emulsion and would require an emulsifier. This is because when water and oil are mixed together and shaken, a dispersion of oil droplets in water - and vice versa - is formed. However, these two phases can separate if the product is left to settle. To address this problem, an emulsifier can be added to the system to help the droplets remain dispersed. improve the consistency of a product, which enables an even distribution of topical skin care benefits.

Surfactant

Surfactant is the short term for surface active agent. Surfactantsare ingredients that lower the surface tension between two substances, such as two liquids or a liquid and a solid. A surfactant molecule contains one end that is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and one end that is lipophilic (attracted to oil). This allows surfactants to attract and suspends oils, dirt, and other impurities that have accumulated on the skin and wash them away. Due to these properties, surfactants are used in products such as cleansers, body washes, and shampoos. Surfactants can be classified by the charge characteristics of their polar (hydrophilic) head groups. The four classifications are anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. Anionic surfactants, such as carboxylic acids and sulfates, have a negative charge on their polar head groups and are most useful for applications that require good cleansing and foam. Cationic surfactants, such as amines and quaternized ammonium compounds (quats), have a positive charge on their polar head and provide conditioning effects. Amphoteric surfactants have the potential to either have a positive or negative charge, depending on the pH of the finished product. Amphoteric surfactants, such as coco betaine and cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, are primarily used as secondary surfactants in cosmetics and personal care products. Lastly, non-ionic surfactants have no specific charge in their hydrophilic head, and are primarily used as emulsifiers, conditioning ingredients, and solubilizing agents. Nonionic surfactants have no foaming capabilities and provide very gentle cleansing properties to the formulation.=

When it comes to evaluating skin care chemicals to find the best ingredients for skin care, PEG 100 Stearate can be one of those cases where it’s difficult to make...Learn More

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Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Emulsifier

An emulsifier is an ingredient that is added to a formulation for the purpose of keeping ingredients from separating in an emulsion. By definition, an emulsion is a dispersion of two or more immiscible (normally incapable of being mixed) ingredients. For example, a formulation that contains both water and oil components is an emulsion and would require an emulsifier. This is because when water and oil are mixed together and shaken, a dispersion of oil droplets in water - and vice versa - is formed. However, these two phases can separate if the product is left to settle. To address this problem, an emulsifier can be added to the system to help the droplets remain dispersed. improve the consistency of a product, which enables an even distribution of topical skin care benefits.

Surfactant

Surfactant is the short term for surface active agent. Surfactantsare ingredients that lower the surface tension between two substances, such as two liquids or a liquid and a solid. A surfactant molecule contains one end that is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and one end that is lipophilic (attracted to oil). This allows surfactants to attract and suspends oils, dirt, and other impurities that have accumulated on the skin and wash them away. Due to these properties, surfactants are used in products such as cleansers, body washes, and shampoos. Surfactants can be classified by the charge characteristics of their polar (hydrophilic) head groups. The four classifications are anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. Anionic surfactants, such as carboxylic acids and sulfates, have a negative charge on their polar head groups and are most useful for applications that require good cleansing and foam. Cationic surfactants, such as amines and quaternized ammonium compounds (quats), have a positive charge on their polar head and provide conditioning effects. Amphoteric surfactants have the potential to either have a positive or negative charge, depending on the pH of the finished product. Amphoteric surfactants, such as coco betaine and cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, are primarily used as secondary surfactants in cosmetics and personal care products. Lastly, non-ionic surfactants have no specific charge in their hydrophilic head, and are primarily used as emulsifiers, conditioning ingredients, and solubilizing agents. Nonionic surfactants have no foaming capabilities and provide very gentle cleansing properties to the formulation.=

Butyrospermum Parkii Oil

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Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Ethylhexyl Triazone

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Sunscreen

Sunscreen contains active ingredients that absorb or reflect the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. Sunscreens can be categorized based on their ingredients into two groups: physical and chemical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, protect your skin by using physical UV filters to block or deflect UV light. Physical sunscreens tend to be better tolerated by most skin types because they are not absorbed into the skin. Chemical sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, octinoxate, and avobenzone, protect the skin by first absorbing UV light, then transforming that light energy into some other form of energy, such as heat. A benefit of chemical sunscreens is their ability to defend the deeper layers of skin, including collagen fibers and other tissue, against the aging effects of UVA rays.  In order for a sunscreen to be labeled as “broad spectrum”, the active ingredients must be able to protect the skin from both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. Lastly, sunscreens will have a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) on their label. SPF is defined by the FDA as “how well a sunscreen protects you from sunburn”. Thus, the number following SPF on a sunscreen label tells you how much UVB light that sunscreen can filter out. For example, SPF 15 can filter 93% of the sun’s UVB rays, whereas SPF 30 can filter 97%.

FUNCTIONS:

Sunscreen

Sunscreen contains active ingredients that absorb or reflect the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. Sunscreens can be categorized based on their ingredients into two groups: physical and chemical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, protect your skin by using physical UV filters to block or deflect UV light. Physical sunscreens tend to be better tolerated by most skin types because they are not absorbed into the skin. Chemical sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, octinoxate, and avobenzone, protect the skin by first absorbing UV light, then transforming that light energy into some other form of energy, such as heat. A benefit of chemical sunscreens is their ability to defend the deeper layers of skin, including collagen fibers and other tissue, against the aging effects of UVA rays.  In order for a sunscreen to be labeled as “broad spectrum”, the active ingredients must be able to protect the skin from both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. Lastly, sunscreens will have a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) on their label. SPF is defined by the FDA as “how well a sunscreen protects you from sunburn”. Thus, the number following SPF on a sunscreen label tells you how much UVB light that sunscreen can filter out. For example, SPF 15 can filter 93% of the sun’s UVB rays, whereas SPF 30 can filter 97%.

Cetearyl Alcohol

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Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Cetearyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol used as an emollient, emulsion stabilizer, surfactant, opacifying agent, and a viscosity-increasing agent in cosmetics and personal care products....Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Jojoba Esters

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Jojoba esters are the hydrogenation or transesterification product of jojoba oil. Jojoba oil is derived from the seeds of the Simmondsia chinensis plant. Jojoba esters are proper waxes; there is

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Retinyl Retinoate

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Vitamin

Vitamins are organic substances (that just means they include the element carbon) that are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins include all 8 B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and vitamin P (bioflavonoids). The most common vitamins used in skin care products include vitamins A, C, and E, niacinamide (vitamin B3), and panthenol (provitamin B5). The majority of vitamins function as antioxidants. Antioxidants limit oxidative damage caused by free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition to functioning as antioxidants, each vitamin provides unique skin care benefits. For example, vitamin C is well known to help fade dark spots and brighten the complexion, while vitamin E can help to strengthen the skin’s moisture barrier.

FUNCTIONS:

Vitamin

Vitamins are organic substances (that just means they include the element carbon) that are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins include all 8 B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and vitamin P (bioflavonoids). The most common vitamins used in skin care products include vitamins A, C, and E, niacinamide (vitamin B3), and panthenol (provitamin B5). The majority of vitamins function as antioxidants. Antioxidants limit oxidative damage caused by free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition to functioning as antioxidants, each vitamin provides unique skin care benefits. For example, vitamin C is well known to help fade dark spots and brighten the complexion, while vitamin E can help to strengthen the skin’s moisture barrier.

Tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane

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Misc

Miscellaneous ingredients are unique ingredients that do not fit into any other category.

FUNCTIONS:

Misc

Miscellaneous ingredients are unique ingredients that do not fit into any other category.

Tocopheryl Acetate

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Vitamin

Vitamins are organic substances (that just means they include the element carbon) that are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins include all 8 B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and vitamin P (bioflavonoids). The most common vitamins used in skin care products include vitamins A, C, and E, niacinamide (vitamin B3), and panthenol (provitamin B5). The majority of vitamins function as antioxidants. Antioxidants limit oxidative damage caused by free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition to functioning as antioxidants, each vitamin provides unique skin care benefits. For example, vitamin C is well known to help fade dark spots and brighten the complexion, while vitamin E can help to strengthen the skin’s moisture barrier.

Tocopheryl acetate is a form of vitamin E used in skin care products due to its powerful antioxidant properties and natural skin-conditioning effects....Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Vitamin

Vitamins are organic substances (that just means they include the element carbon) that are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins include all 8 B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and vitamin P (bioflavonoids). The most common vitamins used in skin care products include vitamins A, C, and E, niacinamide (vitamin B3), and panthenol (provitamin B5). The majority of vitamins function as antioxidants. Antioxidants limit oxidative damage caused by free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition to functioning as antioxidants, each vitamin provides unique skin care benefits. For example, vitamin C is well known to help fade dark spots and brighten the complexion, while vitamin E can help to strengthen the skin’s moisture barrier.

Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer

FUNCTIONS:

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Hydroxyethyl acrylate/sodium acryloyldimethyl taurate copolymer is comprised of sodium hydroxyethyl acrylate and acryloyldimethyl taurate monomers. In cosmetics and personal care products, it functions as a gelling agent that thickens, emulsifies,

FUNCTIONS:

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Tetrahydropiperine

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Curcuma Longa Root Extract

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Sodium Hyaluronate

FUNCTIONS:

Humectant

A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that has a molecular structure with several hydrophilic (water loving) groups, such as hydroxyl groups (OH) and/or amine groups (NH2). There needs to be enough NH and OH groups on the molecule to counteract the nonpolar parts (i.e. hydrocarbon portion), allowing the overall molecule to be polar enough to attract water. The OH and NH groups hydrogen bond with water, essentially “grabbing” it and holding it on the skin. Humectants slow water from evaporating and therefore keep the skin hydrated. Examples of humectants include glycerin, amino acids, peptides, urea, and hyaluronic acid.

NMF-replenishing

NMF-replenishing ingredients are those that help to restore the skin’s Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF). The NMF is primarily composed of free amino acids and various derivatives of these amino acids, for example, PCA, urocanic acid, and inorganic salts, sugars, as well as urea and lactic acid. The role of the NMF is to maintain adequate skin hydration. The NMF can become depleted with age and also from routine exposure to sensitizing ingredients like drying cleansing agents and denatured alcohol. This leads to visibly dry, tight-feeling, flaky skin. By using NMF-replenishing ingredients, such as aminos acids, PCA, and lactic acid, the skin will be better hydrated. Ultimately, these ingredients will help the skin look and feel healthy, smooth, and supple.

Sodium hyaluronate is the water-soluble sodium salt form of hyaluronic acid, a natural substance found in various connective tissues of humans that has a unique capacity for retaining water. Skin...Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Humectant

A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that has a molecular structure with several hydrophilic (water loving) groups, such as hydroxyl groups (OH) and/or amine groups (NH2). There needs to be enough NH and OH groups on the molecule to counteract the nonpolar parts (i.e. hydrocarbon portion), allowing the overall molecule to be polar enough to attract water. The OH and NH groups hydrogen bond with water, essentially “grabbing” it and holding it on the skin. Humectants slow water from evaporating and therefore keep the skin hydrated. Examples of humectants include glycerin, amino acids, peptides, urea, and hyaluronic acid.

NMF-replenishing

NMF-replenishing ingredients are those that help to restore the skin’s Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF). The NMF is primarily composed of free amino acids and various derivatives of these amino acids, for example, PCA, urocanic acid, and inorganic salts, sugars, as well as urea and lactic acid. The role of the NMF is to maintain adequate skin hydration. The NMF can become depleted with age and also from routine exposure to sensitizing ingredients like drying cleansing agents and denatured alcohol. This leads to visibly dry, tight-feeling, flaky skin. By using NMF-replenishing ingredients, such as aminos acids, PCA, and lactic acid, the skin will be better hydrated. Ultimately, these ingredients will help the skin look and feel healthy, smooth, and supple.

Tocopherol

FUNCTIONS:

Vitamin

Vitamins are organic substances (that just means they include the element carbon) that are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins include all 8 B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and vitamin P (bioflavonoids). The most common vitamins used in skin care products include vitamins A, C, and E, niacinamide (vitamin B3), and panthenol (provitamin B5). The majority of vitamins function as antioxidants. Antioxidants limit oxidative damage caused by free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition to functioning as antioxidants, each vitamin provides unique skin care benefits. For example, vitamin C is well known to help fade dark spots and brighten the complexion, while vitamin E can help to strengthen the skin’s moisture barrier.

Tocopherols are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that exhibit vitamin E activity and are used in skin care products due to their ability to protect the skin from...Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Vitamin

Vitamins are organic substances (that just means they include the element carbon) that are essential for normal growth and nutrition, and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins include all 8 B vitamins, as well as vitamin C and vitamin P (bioflavonoids). The most common vitamins used in skin care products include vitamins A, C, and E, niacinamide (vitamin B3), and panthenol (provitamin B5). The majority of vitamins function as antioxidants. Antioxidants limit oxidative damage caused by free radicals, the unstable molecules that contribute to the formation of premature wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. In addition to functioning as antioxidants, each vitamin provides unique skin care benefits. For example, vitamin C is well known to help fade dark spots and brighten the complexion, while vitamin E can help to strengthen the skin’s moisture barrier.

Tapioca Starch

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Tapioca is a starch extracted from the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta), which is native to Brazil. Tapioca starch consists primarily of amylose and amylopectin, which are what give this ingredient

FUNCTIONS:

Plant Extract

Plant extracts are used in a variety of skin care products because they contain beneficial components such as oils, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. With many plants, manufacturers can obtain beneficial extracts from all parts of the plant, including the leaves, flowers, seeds, nuts, fruit, or bark. By definition, extraction is the separation of medicinally active portions of a plant, leaving behind any residue that cannot be used. There are many methods to extract these active portions of the plant, for example, solvent extraction, distillation method, pressing, and sublimation. Cold pressing is considered to be the best method for extracting active components from the plant. A cold press compacts plant parts (i.e. seeds, nuts, etc.) between two plates, releasing their natural oil. Applying heat to the plant as it is being pressed can speed up the process and produce more oil; the downside is that this heat can also break down the nutritional content and reduce the extract’s effectiveness.

Polymethylsilsesquioxane

FUNCTIONS:

Silicone

Silicones are synthetic polymers with a backbone composed of repeating units of siloxane (elemental silicon and oxygen), combined with other elements, most often carbon and hydrogen. Thus, silicones can also be called polysiloxanes. Often, the terms “silicone” and “silicon” are mistakenly used interchangeably, when they are actually quite different.Silicon is the 14th element on the periodic table and the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust, after oxygen. In contrast, silicones are always synthetically produced. As a class, silicones improve the feel, appearance, and performance of cosmetic products. These ingredients act as silky moisturizers, conditioners, solvents, and delivery agents for other skin care ingredients. Silicones are able to help with skin redness and irritation due to their low surface tension, which enables them to spread easily across the surface of skin and form a protective covering. This covering consists of both water-binding and water-resistant molecules. The water-binding portion is the highly flexible and mobile siloxane backbone, which binds to moisture in the air and holds it to the skin. The water-repelling methyl groups orient themselves toward the surface, creating a waterproof "umbrella” that prevents trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). This property makes silicones useful for water-resistant sunscreens.

Polymethylsilsesquioxane is a type of silicone that is used in cosmetics and personal care products as a film-forming agent, skin-conditioning agent, and anti-aging ingredient....Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Silicone

Silicones are synthetic polymers with a backbone composed of repeating units of siloxane (elemental silicon and oxygen), combined with other elements, most often carbon and hydrogen. Thus, silicones can also be called polysiloxanes. Often, the terms “silicone” and “silicon” are mistakenly used interchangeably, when they are actually quite different.Silicon is the 14th element on the periodic table and the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust, after oxygen. In contrast, silicones are always synthetically produced. As a class, silicones improve the feel, appearance, and performance of cosmetic products. These ingredients act as silky moisturizers, conditioners, solvents, and delivery agents for other skin care ingredients. Silicones are able to help with skin redness and irritation due to their low surface tension, which enables them to spread easily across the surface of skin and form a protective covering. This covering consists of both water-binding and water-resistant molecules. The water-binding portion is the highly flexible and mobile siloxane backbone, which binds to moisture in the air and holds it to the skin. The water-repelling methyl groups orient themselves toward the surface, creating a waterproof "umbrella” that prevents trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). This property makes silicones useful for water-resistant sunscreens.

Citric Acid

FUNCTIONS:

Chemical Exfoliant

Exfoliation is defined as “the process of removing dead skin cells from the outer layer of your skin”, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. There are two types of exfoliation: physical and chemical. Chemical exfoliation utilizes chemical agents to break up dead skin cells, allowing them to be washed away more easily. Examples of chemical exfoliants include alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), beta hydroxy acids (BHAs), and poly hydroxy acids (PHAs). Chemical exfoliants provide numerous skin benefits, such as improving skin texture, increasing cell turnover, brightening a dull complexion, fading dark spots, clearing out pores, reducing the appearance of lines and wrinkles, and more. Plus, chemical exfoliants are typically considered to be easier on the skin than physical exfoliants.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Preservative

A preservative is a natural or synthetic ingredient that is added to a cosmetic product to prevent microbial contamination (bacteria, mold, yeast, etc.), as well as to prevent degradation by environmental factors such as heat, light, and air. Cosmetics have a high potential for microbial contamination and growth. The most susceptible products are creams and lotions that are packaged in jars, opened frequently, and applied to the skin with the fingers. Inadvertent contamination may also occur after the use of makeup brushes around the eyes or other parts of the face that touch the skin and the cosmetic repeatedly. Each use increases the chance for contamination. Furthermore, contamination may occur if the consumer leaves a product container open for an extended period of time. Another major cause of product contamination is storage conditions. Since the majority of products are stored at room temperature, the warm temperature can stimulate the growth of microorganisms. Plus, the ingredients used in cosmetic formulations, such as water, oils, peptides, and carbohydrates, create the perfect environment for microorganism growth. Microbial contamination can lead to many problems, such as skin irritation and infections.To avoid these problems, a strong yet non-irritating preservative must be added to the formulation of a product. Examples of commonly used preservatives in skin care include phenoxyethanol, chlorphenesin, sodium benzoate, and parabens.

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is used in personal care products to adjust the acidity or promote skin peeling and re-growth in the case of anti-aging products....Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Chemical Exfoliant

Exfoliation is defined as “the process of removing dead skin cells from the outer layer of your skin”, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. There are two types of exfoliation: physical and chemical. Chemical exfoliation utilizes chemical agents to break up dead skin cells, allowing them to be washed away more easily. Examples of chemical exfoliants include alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), beta hydroxy acids (BHAs), and poly hydroxy acids (PHAs). Chemical exfoliants provide numerous skin benefits, such as improving skin texture, increasing cell turnover, brightening a dull complexion, fading dark spots, clearing out pores, reducing the appearance of lines and wrinkles, and more. Plus, chemical exfoliants are typically considered to be easier on the skin than physical exfoliants.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Preservative

A preservative is a natural or synthetic ingredient that is added to a cosmetic product to prevent microbial contamination (bacteria, mold, yeast, etc.), as well as to prevent degradation by environmental factors such as heat, light, and air. Cosmetics have a high potential for microbial contamination and growth. The most susceptible products are creams and lotions that are packaged in jars, opened frequently, and applied to the skin with the fingers. Inadvertent contamination may also occur after the use of makeup brushes around the eyes or other parts of the face that touch the skin and the cosmetic repeatedly. Each use increases the chance for contamination. Furthermore, contamination may occur if the consumer leaves a product container open for an extended period of time. Another major cause of product contamination is storage conditions. Since the majority of products are stored at room temperature, the warm temperature can stimulate the growth of microorganisms. Plus, the ingredients used in cosmetic formulations, such as water, oils, peptides, and carbohydrates, create the perfect environment for microorganism growth. Microbial contamination can lead to many problems, such as skin irritation and infections.To avoid these problems, a strong yet non-irritating preservative must be added to the formulation of a product. Examples of commonly used preservatives in skin care include phenoxyethanol, chlorphenesin, sodium benzoate, and parabens.

Pheno-Xyethanol

FUNCTIONS:

Preservative

A preservative is a natural or synthetic ingredient that is added to a cosmetic product to prevent microbial contamination (bacteria, mold, yeast, etc.), as well as to prevent degradation by environmental factors such as heat, light, and air. Cosmetics have a high potential for microbial contamination and growth. The most susceptible products are creams and lotions that are packaged in jars, opened frequently, and applied to the skin with the fingers. Inadvertent contamination may also occur after the use of makeup brushes around the eyes or other parts of the face that touch the skin and the cosmetic repeatedly. Each use increases the chance for contamination. Furthermore, contamination may occur if the consumer leaves a product container open for an extended period of time. Another major cause of product contamination is storage conditions. Since the majority of products are stored at room temperature, the warm temperature can stimulate the growth of microorganisms. Plus, the ingredients used in cosmetic formulations, such as water, oils, peptides, and carbohydrates, create the perfect environment for microorganism growth. Microbial contamination can lead to many problems, such as skin irritation and infections.To avoid these problems, a strong yet non-irritating preservative must be added to the formulation of a product. Examples of commonly used preservatives in skin care include phenoxyethanol, chlorphenesin, sodium benzoate, and parabens.

Phenoxyethanol is glycol ether used as a preservative in cosmetic products and medicines. This is a kind of ether alcohol with aromatic properties that can enhance a skin product’s scent....Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Preservative

A preservative is a natural or synthetic ingredient that is added to a cosmetic product to prevent microbial contamination (bacteria, mold, yeast, etc.), as well as to prevent degradation by environmental factors such as heat, light, and air. Cosmetics have a high potential for microbial contamination and growth. The most susceptible products are creams and lotions that are packaged in jars, opened frequently, and applied to the skin with the fingers. Inadvertent contamination may also occur after the use of makeup brushes around the eyes or other parts of the face that touch the skin and the cosmetic repeatedly. Each use increases the chance for contamination. Furthermore, contamination may occur if the consumer leaves a product container open for an extended period of time. Another major cause of product contamination is storage conditions. Since the majority of products are stored at room temperature, the warm temperature can stimulate the growth of microorganisms. Plus, the ingredients used in cosmetic formulations, such as water, oils, peptides, and carbohydrates, create the perfect environment for microorganism growth. Microbial contamination can lead to many problems, such as skin irritation and infections.To avoid these problems, a strong yet non-irritating preservative must be added to the formulation of a product. Examples of commonly used preservatives in skin care include phenoxyethanol, chlorphenesin, sodium benzoate, and parabens.

Caprylyl Glycol

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Humectant

A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that has a molecular structure with several hydrophilic (water loving) groups, such as hydroxyl groups (OH) and/or amine groups (NH2). There needs to be enough NH and OH groups on the molecule to counteract the nonpolar parts (i.e. hydrocarbon portion), allowing the overall molecule to be polar enough to attract water. The OH and NH groups hydrogen bond with water, essentially “grabbing” it and holding it on the skin. Humectants slow water from evaporating and therefore keep the skin hydrated. Examples of humectants include glycerin, amino acids, peptides, urea, and hyaluronic acid.

Caprylyl glycol is a skin conditioning agent that adds moisturization and wetting properties to many cosmetics and personal care products, as well as functions as a preservative booster....Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Emollient

Emollients are ingredients that hydrate and improve the skin softness, flexibility, and smoothness. Examples of emollients include petrolatum, mineral oil, and various oils. Emollients are used in products such as creams, ointments, serums, and lotions. They improve skin softness and smoothness immediately after application.

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Humectant

A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that has a molecular structure with several hydrophilic (water loving) groups, such as hydroxyl groups (OH) and/or amine groups (NH2). There needs to be enough NH and OH groups on the molecule to counteract the nonpolar parts (i.e. hydrocarbon portion), allowing the overall molecule to be polar enough to attract water. The OH and NH groups hydrogen bond with water, essentially “grabbing” it and holding it on the skin. Humectants slow water from evaporating and therefore keep the skin hydrated. Examples of humectants include glycerin, amino acids, peptides, urea, and hyaluronic acid.

Sodium Hydroxide

FUNCTIONS:

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Sodium hydroxide is a highly alkaline ingredient that is used in small amounts in cosmetics and personal care products to establish and hold the pH of a product....Learn More

FUNCTIONS:

Formulation Enhancer

A formulation enhancer is any ingredient that is used to improve the look, feel, texture, stability, rheology, or appearance of a cosmetic product. A formulation enhancer does not provide a direct benefit to the skin, but rather improves the product and the user’s experience of the product.

Parfum

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